Map 4. Map of Manchuria and adjoining territories, 1934

The Cartographic Evolution of the Sino-Mongolian Border at Zamyn Üüd/Erlian

Map 4. Map of Manchuria and adjoining territories, 1934

Here, the map does not show a major track running through Wuteh and Iren Dabasu (Erlian)—both towns appear in the lower part of the close-up image below—but still depicts the telegraph line connecting Ulaanbaatar to Kalgan. An international boundary line separates Mongolia from China even though this British government–produced map was published in 1934, eleven years before the British formally recognized Mongolian independence at the 1945 Yalta Conference. This suggests that, despite Britain’s official stance toward Mongolia in the 1930s, the British state on some level conceptualized Mongolia as an entity independent from China.

Source: Great Britain War Office, General Staff Geographical Section, Manchuria and Adjoining Territories [map], scale 1:4,000,000 (London: Geographical Section, General Staff, 1934).