Map 3. Map of China and adjacent regions, showing railways and principal caravan routes, 1932

The Cartographic Evolution of the Sino-Mongolian Border at Zamyn Üüd/Erlian

Map 3. Map of China and adjacent regions, showing railways and principal caravan routes, 1932

In this 1932 map, U.S. federal cartographers noted several caravan routes crossing the Gobi Desert between Mongolia (mapped as a province of China) and Inner Mongolian provinces. Wuteh (Zamyn Üüd) and Irdenmanha (Erlian) are noted as stops on a major caravan route. Although they lie on opposite sides of the provincial border, a significant distance separates them. See legend and detail below.

Source: U.S. Department of State, Office of the Geographer, Map of China and Adjacent Regions, Showing Railways and Principal Caravan Routes, no. 4, scale 1:10,000,000, map series (Washington, DC: Department of State, 1932).