Map 1. Map of Mongolia, 1908

The Cartographic Evolution of the Sino-Mongolian Border at Zamyn Üüd/Erlian

Map 1. Map of Mongolia, 1908

This map from a 1908 atlas of China shows that Ude (Zamyn Üüd) was a telegraph station at the time (see legend and detail below). The atlas predates by three years Mongolia’s first declaration of independence from China; Mongolia was still part of the Chinese Empire. Thus, this map shows something of a baseline cartographic state for the coming evolution and negotiation of (Outer) Mongolia’s establishment as an independent country.

Source: Edward Stanford (for the China Inland Mission), Atlas of the Chinese Empire, scale 1:7,500,000 (London: Morgan & Scott, Ltd., 1908), 22. David Rumsey Map Collection, http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/s/al4mly, accessed November 2016.