School girls with big hats, Pyŏngyang

Gendering Modernity: Korean Women Seen through the Early Missionary Gaze (1880s–1910s)

School girls with big hats, Pyŏngyang

Schoolgirls with big hats in Pyŏngyang, early 1900s. Source: General Commission on Archives and History of the United Methodist Church, Madison, NJ.

The relatively weak grip of Confucian culture outside Seoul, especially in northern Korea, resulted in looser gender restrictions in those areas. This picture, taken in Pyŏngyang within a church compound, demonstrates a regional variation of women’s outdoor clothing. Women in Pyŏngyang wore big hats called punyŏ satkat, instead of jang-ot, when they went out.